Fun Easy English Classroom March 14


Learn about
singular nouns
Singular Nouns

Today in the Fun Easy English classroom you are going to learn about singular nouns an important part of English grammar.
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Grammar: Singular Nouns

Definition of a singular noun.
  • A singular noun is a word used to describe one thing
Singular Noun Examples
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by adding an "s" to the singular  form of the noun
  • boy-boys, girl-girls, cat-cats, table-tables, book-books, tree-trees, auto-autos, photo-photos, radio-radios, studio-studios
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by adding an "es" to the singular form of nouns ending in "ch", "s", "sh", "x"
  • glass-glasses, dish-dishes, ditch-ditches, wish-wishes, coach-coaches, kiss-kisses, tax-taxes
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by adding an "es" to the singular form of nouns ending in "o" and preceded by a consonant
  • hero-heroes, tornado-tornados-tornadoes (can end in either "s" or "es"), potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes
  • Note: nouns of Italian or Spanish origin are exceptions to this rule
  • ie: canto-cantos, grotto-grottos, piano-pianos, portico-porticos, quarto-quartos, solo-solos
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by changing the "f" into a "v" and adding "es"
  • half-halves, leaf-leaves, calf-calves
  • Note: some just add an "s"
  • ie: proof-proofs, muff-muffs
  • Note: some can do either
  • ie: dwarf-dwarfs-dwarves, hoof-hoofs-hooves, staff-staffs-staves
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by dropping the "y" and adding "ies" of nouns ending in "y" and preceded by a consonant
  • cherry-cherries, lady-ladies, story-stories, party-parties
  • Singular nouns which form the plural by simply changing the vowel sound of the singular form
  • foot-feet, goose-geese, louse-lice, man-men, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, woman-women, mouse-mice
  • Singular nouns where the singular and plural forms are different 
  • child-children, ox-oxen, person-people
  • Singular nouns where the singular and plural forms are the same
  • cod, series, trout, deer, fish, moose, offspring, series, sheep, species
  • Singular nouns with no plural form (abstract nouns)
  • goodness, idleness, wisdom
  • Singular nouns with no plural form such as words in the fields of arts and sciences
  • chemistry, geometrymechanics, optics, blues (music)
  • Note: even those ending in "ics" are treated as singular
  • Singular nouns where the singular form is retained such as nouns from foreign languages
  • analysis-analyses, appendix-appendices, bacterium-bacteria, basis-bases, crisis-crises, criterion-criteria, curriculum-curricula, datum-data, formula-formulae, hypothesis-hypotheses, medium-media, memorandum-memoranda, parenthesis-parentheses, phenomenon-phenomena, syllabus-syllabi, thesis-theses
From YOUR Teacher: Singular Nouns

This is a pretty simple concept in American English grammar. These words basically describe only one thing.
Additional Lessons
About These Lessons

The following classroom lessons are great for students who want additional conversation, listening, and reading practice.
  • Conversation Lesson - Intermediate Level. Let's Learn English conversation lesson with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, and a new words section.
Conversation Lesson 21 - Trash to Treasure, Part 1
(Intermediate - Conversation, Listening, Reading)

In this lesson Anna wants to get Pete a gift for his birthday. So, she visits a store called Tanglewood Works and tries to learn the difference between trash and treasure.
Lesson Video

Watch the video and then read the video script.
Video Script

Anna: (on phone, to Pete) Got it. Pete, I promise. I won’t tell anyone. (to herself) Bye. He is so strange.
Ashley: Hey, Anna!
Anna: Hi, Ashley!
Ashley: Are you talking to yourself again?
Anna: No, not this time. I was talking to Pete.
Ashley: How’s he doing?
Anna: Good. He has a birthday coming up! But he told me not to tell anyone.
Ashley: Why?
Anna: Well, from the way he was speaking, I don’t think he likes cake or presents or fun.
Ashley: That sounds like Pete.
Anna: Well, I don’t care. I’m getting him a present. Do you know where I can buy something unique?
Ashley: I do -- Tanglewood Works. You will definitely find something unique there.
Anna: Great. I’ll go this weekend. Now, speaking of Pete’s birthday, what else should I do? I know. I’ll rent him a clown!
Ashley: Yeah, he’ll never speak to you again.
Professor Bot: Did you hear Ashley and Anna using the words talk and speak?
Talk and speak both mean “to say words.” And, many times, you can use either word without losing any meaning. But there are some differences in when we use these words.
The word talk is usually used:
for conversations between two or more people
and informal situations, such as between friends or family
For example, Ashley asks Anna: “Are you talking to yourself again?”
Speak is usually used:
for one-way communication, such as presentations
formal situations, such as a boss speaking with her workers
to talk about language ability
and in polite requests
Keep watching, and listen for the words talk and speak.
(Anna goes to Tanglewood Works.)
Sue: Hey there. Welcome to Tanglewood Works! I’m Sue. How can I help you today?
Anna: Hi Sue, I’m Anna. A friend told me about your store. She said, “Anna, this place is really unique!”
Sue: We are! Here at Tanglewood Works, we focus on things that are handmade, reclaimed and recycled.
Anna: Wow! That is really good for the environment.
Sue: It’s good for you too. Local artists made all of these one-of-a-kind pieces. And I paint most of the furniture.
Anna: Can I look around?
Sue: Oh, please do.
(Anna walks around the store.)
Sue: So, Anna, do you like to make things?
Anna: Me? Oh, no. Every time I try to make something, something goes wrong.
(She knocks down many things.)
Anna: Oh, sorry. Sorry.
Sue: It’s okay. Anna, everybody can make something.
Anna: Sue, this piece is very interesting!
Sue: You know, when I found these pieces, they were broken and in a dumpster. But they spoke to me. And they said, “Save me, Sue! Save me!”
Anna: Sue, what do you mean they “spoke” to you?
Sue: When I see something special that someone has thrown away, I can almost hear it talk.
Anna: It’s not saying anything!
Sue: Anna, it’s not easy to see the treasure in trash.
Anna: Or hear it talk.
Sue: But you can learn. In fact, I teach private classes. And one is called Turning Trash to Treasure.
Sue: Next week, bring in some trash and we’ll turn it into treasure. Just remember – pick some trash that “speaks” to you.
Anna: Got it! I’ll see you next week!
Professor Bot: Will Anna find trash that “speaks” to her? What will it say? We’ll find out next week!

Now practice listening to only the audio portion of the conversation.

Now, you try it!

First, read more about talk and speak below. Then, practice using those words in the Comments section. Try making one sentence with talk and one with speak.

You can write about:

a conversation with a friend
a conversation with a group
someone’s language skills
a professor at a national event
a manager and his/her workers
or anything else you choose
In each sentence, be sure to use the correct word: talk or speak!

Talk | Speak

Talk and speak both mean “to say words.” But there are some differences in the ways we use each word.

Talk is less formal than speak. It is usually used for informal conversations between two or more people.

He wants to talk to you.
They talked for three hours.
Let’s talk about ideas for the show.
I can’t talk right now. I’ll call you later.

Speak is usually used for communication in more serious or formal situations. It is also used in polite requests and to talk about language ability.

She spoke on the news about world hunger.
May I speak to the manager?
Which languages do you speak?
I speak French and Haitian Creole.

Test Yourself

Test yourself on what you've learned so far!

Lesson 21 has grammar from many lessons in Level 2. See how much you can find! Look for sentences in Lesson 21 with:

Indirect questions
Reported speech
Reflexive pronouns
Adverb clauses
Present perfect

Then, write those sentences in the Comments section. For example:

Sue says, “You know, when I found these pieces, they were broken and in a dumpster.” (Adverb clause: “when I found these pieces”)
New Words
  • abilityn. the power or skill of doing something
  • caken. a sweet baked food made from a mixture of flour, sugar, and other ingredients (such as eggs and butter)
  • communicationn. the act or process of using words to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings
  • conversationn. an informal talk involving two people or a small group of people
  • definitelyadv. in a way that is certain or clear
  • dumpstern. a large trash container
  • furnituren. chairs, tables, beds, et cetera that are used to make a room ready for use
  • focusv. to direct your attention or effort at something specific
  • handmadeadj. made with your hands or by using hand tools
  • environmentn. the natural world
  • localadj. located or living nearby
  • one-of-a-kindadj. used to say that something is the only one of its kind
  • politeadj. having or showing good manners or respect for other people
  • presentn. gift
  • presentationn. an activity in which someone shows, describes, or explains something to a group of people
  • privateadj. for the use of a single person or group
  • reclaimedadj. describes getting (a usable thing) from materials that have been used before
  • recycledadj. describes something new that was made from something used before
  • requestn. an act of politely or formally asking for something
  • situationn. the facts, conditions and events that affect someone or something at a particular time and in a particular place
  • strangeadj. different from what is usual, normal, or expected
  • trashn. things that are no longer useful or wanted and that have been thrown away
  • treasuren. something that is very special, important or valuable
  • uniqueadj. used to say that something or someone is unlike anything or anyone else
Conversation Lessons

Study all 30 English intermediate conversation lessons. Let's Learn English conversation lessons each with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, and a new words section. These lessons are for intermediate students.
Conversation Lessons

Study all 52 English beginner conversation lessons. Let's Learn English conversation lessons each with a conversation video, a video script, audio listening practice, video speaking practice, video pronunciation practice, a new words section, and a writing activity. These lessons are for beginning students.
Source: Voice of America
Additional Information
Study Tips
(Beginner - Listening)

Avoid Ineffective Study Methods. An audio lesson to help you study English more effectively. The English is spoken at 75% of normal speed. Great English study tips.
Click here to visit the lesson page with the written script for this audio program.