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Holiday:Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time (DST)—also summer time in
British English— is the practice of advancing clocks during
the lighter months so that evenings have more apparent
daylight and mornings have less. Typically clocks are
adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are
adjusted backward in autumn.
The modern idea of daylight saving was first proposed in
1895 by George Vernon Hudson and it was first implemented by
Germany and Austria-Hungary starting on 30 April 1916. Many
countries have used it at various times since then. Much of
the United States used DST in the 1950s and 1960s, and DST
use expanded following the 1970s energy crisis. It has been
widely used in North America and Europe since then.
The practice has been both praised and criticized. Adding
daylight to evenings benefits retailing, sports, and other
activities that exploit sunlight after working hours, but
can cause problems for evening entertainment and other
occupations tied to the sun (such as farming) or to darkness
(such as firework shows). Although an early goal of DST was
to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting (formerly a
primary use of electricity), modern heating and cooling
usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST
currently affects energy use is limited or contradictory.